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ESSENTIAL OILS - DAMASK ROSE ESSENTIAL OIL (ROSA DAMASCENA)

BASE / GENERAL DATA

PHOTOGALLERY

Information submited: 2014-03-12 Modified: 2018-04-23 By: 1
Botanical Name: Rosa damascena

Common Method of Extraction: Steam distilled

Part Typically Used: The petals of various types of rose

Color: Light to mid yellow. Pale yellow or greenish tint

Consistency:  Thin

Perfumery Note: Top/Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Deep, sweet, floral, with touch of low citrus, sensual, rosy, strong.

Rosa Damascena, more commonly known as the Damask Rose, or sometimes as the Rose of Castile, is a Rose hybrid, derived from Rosa Gallica and Rosa Moschata. Further DNA analysis has shown that a third species, Rosa Fedtschenkoana, is associated with the Damask Rose.

The flowers are renowned for their fine fragrance, and are commercially harvested for Rose oil (either "Rose Otto" or "Rose Absolute") used in perfumery and to make rose water and "Rose Concrete". The flower petals are also edible.

They may be used to flavor food, as a garnish, as an herbal tea, and preserved in sugar as gulkand. The Damask Rose is a deciduous shrub growing to 2,2 metres tall, the stems densely armed with stout, curved prickles and stiff bristles. The leaves are pinnate, with five leaflets. The Roses are a light to moderate pink to light red.

The relatively small flowers grow in groups. The bush has an informal shape. It is considered an important type of Old Rose, and also important for its prominent place in the pedigree of many other types.

SPIRITUAL PRACTISES DATA

Information submited: 2014-10-13 Modified: 2014-10-13 By: 1
Rose petals were scattered at weddings to ensure a happy marriage and are still a symbol of love and purity and are also used to aid meditation and prayer.
Information submited: 2015-02-19 Modified: 2015-02-19 By: 1
Rose is self nurturing and instills self love and appreciation, trust and hope.

MEDICINE / HEALTH DATA

Information submited: 2014-08-28 Modified: 2014-08-28 By: 1
Most of Rosa dascena essential oil effects are hypnotic, analgesic,anticonvulsant effects. The respiratory, cardiovascular, laxative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant

Several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic and relexant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant.

The most therapeutic effects of Rosa damascena in ancient medicine are ancluding treatment of abdominal and chest pain, strengthening the heart, treatment of menstrual bleeding and digestive problems, and reduction of inflammation, especially of the neck. North American Indian tribes used a decoction of the root of Rosa damascena plant as a cough remedly to ease childrens cough.

Rose oil heals depression, grief, nervous stress and tension. It helps in the reduction of thirst, healing oil caugh, special complaints of women, wound healing, and skin health. Therapy of rose oil is helpful for some allergies, headaches and migraine.

Several Pharmacological studies been performed on Rosa damascena to evaluate their effects on the central nervous system. Some of these effects that evaluated are hypnotic, anticonvulsant, anti-depressant, anti-anxiety, analgesic effects and nerve growth.

One of the effects of Rosa damascea on central nervous system is its hypnotic effect.

The ethanol crude extract of Rosa damascena and its fractions were also investigated in mice. It was shown that they can prolong the pentobarbital induced sleeping time comparable to diazepam. Flavonoids have been shown to have anxiolytic andantidepressant activity in numerous studies. It can be suggested that flavonoids of the Rosa damascena contribute to the hypnotic effect.

The analgesic effext of Rosa damascena is also reported. It has been reported that Rosa damascena cintains flavonoid. Therefore, it seems that these compounds have some role in the analgesic effect of the plant. Therefore Rosa damascena may have beneficial effect in patients suffering from dementia.

Other components of essential oil Rosa damascena such as geraniol and eugenol have been shown to have antiepileptic effect.

The effects of the essential oil of Rosa damascena as an adjunct in treatment of chikdren with refractory seizures were also studied and showed a significant reduction in the mean frequency of seizures in patients using essential oil of the plant. Therefore, the essential oil of Rosa damascena has beneficial antiepileptic effect in children with refractory seizures.

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of this plantsignificantly reduce number of coughs induced by citric acid.

The effects of water and methanol extracts of Rosa damascena on HIV infection were studied in vitro. Rose damascena exhibited some anti-HIV activity.

It has been found that Rosa damascena exert an anti-diabetic effect. anti-diabetic effect of this plant maybe mediated by inhibition of alfa-glucosidase that suppressed carbohydrte absorption from the small intestine and can reduce the postprandial glucose level.

Rosa damascena essential oil has wide spectrum antimicrobial activities. Essential oil, absoliute and hydrosol are important products that showed these effects. Rose essential oil has strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, B. sutilis, Staph. aureus, Chromobacterium violaceun and Erwinia carotovora strains. The Chromobacteriuk violaceum was the most sensitive microorganism against rose essential oil.

Antibacterial effect of rose oil maybe mediated by these components : citrenellol, geraniol and nerol.

Rosa damascena has high antioxidant activities. Sources of natural antioxidants are primarily phenolics compuond that are found in all plant parts. Rosa damascena contains, vitamin C which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

This herb have been conventionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial and reportedly possess anti-infective and anti-inflammatory properties. this essential oil contains several components such as terpenes, glycosides, flavonoids and anthocyanins that have beneficial effects on human health.

FOOD / COOKING DATA

Information submited: 2014-08-28 Modified: 2014-08-28 By: 1
Rose is the king of flowers and Damask rose is classified in old garden roses. The origion of Damask rose is Iran and the Middle East region and it is the national flower of Iran.

Rosa damascena known as Gole Mohammadi is Iran of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. Rosaceae are well knownornamental plants and have been referred to as the king of flowers. At present time, over 200 rose species and more than 18000 cultivars form of the plant have been indentified. Apart from the use of Rosa damascena as prnamental plants in parks, gardens, and houses, they are principally cultivated for using in perfume, medicine and food industry.

Because of the low oil content in Rosa damascena and the lack of natural and synthetic substitutes, essential rose oil of this plant is one of the most expensive ones in the world markets.

Rose damascena is a perennial bushy shrub reaching approximately 1 to 2 meters in height with large, showy and colorful flowers. The leaves are imparipinnate and compuond with 5 - 7 leaflets. Its life span is up to 50 and economic pwriod is about 25 years.

There are evidences that Rosaceae family is an ancient plant. Some fossils of rose are found in America that are 30 million years old. The origin of Damask rose is the Middle East and some evidences indicate that the origin of rose wather is Iran, but the origin of its fragrant oil and extracts is Greece. This plant is cultivated in alll over the world including Iran, Europe, Bulgaria, Turkey and India.

There are many evideces that cultivation and consumption of Rosa damascena in Iran has a long history and Iran is one of its origins. It is believed that the crude distillation of roses for the oil was originated from Persia in the late 7th century AD, and spread to the provinces of Ottoman Empire later in 14th centuy. Iran was the main producer of rose oil until the 16th century and exported it to all around the world.

It is a volatile oil obtained by distillation of the fresh flowers of Rose damascena. The chief producting countries are Bulgaria, Turkey and Morocco, but not a major product in Iran. The oil is prepared in copper alembic stills by the peasant or in large factories under careful scientific control. Some 3000 parts of flowers yields only one part of oil. The oil is very expensive and very liable to adulteration.

Because of the low oil content in Rosa damascena and the lack of natural and synthetic substitutes, essential rose oil is one of the most expensive ones in the world markets.

Chemical composition:

This plant contains carboxylic acid, myrcene, vitamin C, kaempferol and quarcetin. Flowers also contain a bitter principle, tanning matter, fatty oil and organic acids. In Rosa damascena oil founded more than 95 macro- and micri-components. Among them, eighteen compounds represented more than 95% of the total oil. The identified compounds were: beta-citronellol (14,5-47,5%), nonadecane (10,5-40,5%), geraniol (5.5-18%), and nerol and kaempferol were the major components of the oil.

Phenolics possess a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as antioxidants, free-radical scavengers, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and antidepressant.
Information submited: 2014-10-13 Modified: 2014-10-13 By: 1
Extraction:

Anicenna, the 10th century Persian physician, used the rose as his first plant to distill and a rose distillery existed in 1612 in Shiraz, Persia.

It takes about 60,000 roses (about 180 lb) to make one ounce ( 29,57 ml) of rose otto - or to put in a different way 40,000 kilograms to make 1 liter of rose otto.

Rose otto oil is extracted from the fresh flowers, picked before 8 am in the morning, by steam distillation and the yield is 0.02 -0.05 %. The heat used in the distillation process is carefully controlled, as the aroma can be damaged if the heat is too high.
Information submited: 2014-10-13 Modified: 2014-10-13 By: 1
India has also developed an industry producing Rose Oil (both Rose Attar and Rose Absolutes) as well as Rose Concrete. Perhaps due to the low labor cost and the commitment of the Indian Government to international trade and high quality standards, these products from India today are cheaper than those from Bulgaria and Turkey.
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